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APP Opposition Groups:

    Southern Poverty Law Center - The Center for Propaganda for Socialism in America which opposes CITIZEN MILITIAS

    This is in Opposition of the Constitution as it was written and against the principles of Common Law... A REVERSE HATE GROUP -

    LINK:

    SPL #1
    SPL #2 patriot-movememnt
    SPL #3 entelligence-files
    SPL #4

         This group say they want to protect  on one hand - but then allow the deviant of society to brain wash and then misuse others or each other outside the Laws of Nature; Allowing for the existence of Voluntary Slavery  and Slavery - Through the relinquishment of inalienable rights. This Group, Communist / Socialist in nature,  places a form of "Subjugated Peace" under a central national government;  Instead of abiding by the True Principles of Freedom established in small well represented and independent republics;

     See
    John Locke with regard to such a "peace"  word search LAMB on his Second Treatise on Civil Government.

    They are a proponent of reverse hate; and are a proponent for the use of National Federal force, cumulated by government "laws" which have been created without authority  - i.e. under the
    PRETENSE OF AUTHORITY.

    See Virginia Resolution, James Madison, denouncing when the government makes itself, and not the Constitution the Measure of its powers.
     

 

 

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Constitution of the United States of America

Part 2

THE BILL OF RIGHTS
and other AMENDMENTS

APP Warning on "GENERAL PHRASES". Listen to James Madison, Author of the Constitution:

Virginia Resolution of 1798; Author of the Constitution James Madison:

"RESOLVED, That the General Assembly of Virginia, doth unequivocably express a firm resolution to maintain and defend the Constitution of the United States, and the Constitution of this State, against every aggression either foreign or domestic, and that they will support "the government" of the United States in all measures"WARRANTED" by "the former". That this assembly most solemnly declares a warm attachment to the Union of the "States", to maintain which it pledges all its powers; and that for this end, it is their duty to watch over and oppose "every infraction" of those principles which constitute the "ONLY BASIS" of that Union, because a faithful observance of them, can alone secure it's existence and the public happiness.That this Assembly doth explicitly and peremptorily declare, that it views the powers of the federal government, as resulting from the "COMPACT", to which the states are parties; as limited by the "PLAIN SENSE and INTENTION" of the instrument constituting the "COMPACT"; as NO further valid that they are authorized by the grants "ENUMERATED" in "THAT COMPACT"; and that in case of a deliberate, palpable, and dangerous exercise of other powers, not granted by the said"COMPACT", the STATES who are parties thereto, have the RIGHT, and are in DUTY bound, to interpose for arresting the progress of the "EVIL", and for maintaining within their respective limits, the authorities, rights and liberties appertaining to them.

That the General Assembly doth also express its deep regret, that a spirit has in sundry instances, been manifested by the federal government, to "enlarge its powers" by
>>>>>>>>>>>"forcedconstructions" of the constitutional charter which defines them;and that implications have appeared of a "design" to "EXPOUND" certain >>>"GENERAL "PHRASES" (which having been copied from the very limited grant of power, in the former articles of confederation were the less liable to be misconstrued) so as to "destroy the meaning" and "EFFECT", of the particular "ENUMERATION" which "NECESSARILY EXPLAINS" AND >>>"LIMITS" THE "GENERAL PHRASES"; and so as to "consolidate the states" by degrees, into ONE sovereignty (APP: i.e. "ONE NATION":), theobvious tendency and inevitable consequence of which would be, to TRANSFORM the present "republican" system of the United States, into an absolute, or at best a mixedMONARCHY.

That the General Assembly doth particularly protest against the palpable and alarming infractions of the Constitution, in the two late cases of the "Alien and Sedition Acts" passed at the last session of Congress; the first of which exercises a power NO WHERE DELEGATED to the federal government, and which by "uniting legislative and judicial" powers to those of "executive", SUBVERTS THE GENERALPRINCIPLES of free government; as well as the particular organization, and positive provisions of the federal constitution; and the other of which acts, exercises in like manner, a power NOT delegated by the constitution, but on the contrary, expressly and positively forbidden by one of the amendments thereto; a power, which more than any other, ought to produce universal alarm, because it is levelled against that right of freely examining public characters and measures, and of FREE COMMUNICATION AMONG THE PEOPLE THEREON, which has ever been justly deemed, the ONLY effectual GUARDIAN of EVERY OTHER RIGHT."
 



American Patriot Party

Study Series

Virginia Ratifying Convention 6-16-1788:

Mr. GEORGE NICHOLAS:

"...But the "COMMON LAW" is "NOT EXCLUDED". There is "NOTHING" in "that paper" (APP Note: referring to the US Constitution being considered)  to warrant the assertion.

As to the exclusion of a jury from the vicinage, he has mistaken the fact. The legislature may direct a jury to come from the vicinage. But the gentleman  says that, by this Constitution, they have power to make laws to define crimes  and prescribe punishments; and that, consequently, we are not free from torture.  Treason against the United States is defined in the Constitution, and the  forfeiture limited to the life of the person attainted. Congress have power  to define and punish piracies and felonies committed on the high seas, and  offences against the laws of nations;
but they cannot define or prescribe the punishment of "ANY OTHER" crime "WHATEVER", without VIOLATING the Constitution. If we had no security against torture but our declaration of rights, we might be tortured to-morrow; for it has been repeatedly infringed and disregarded. A bill of rights is only an acknowledgment of the PREEXISTING claim to rights in the people.

They belong to us as much as if they had been inserted in the Constitution. (APP Note: Which they eventually were) But it is said that, if it be doubtful, the possibility of dispute ought to be precluded. Admitting it was proper for the Convention to have inserted a bill of rights, it is not proper here to propose it as the condition of our accession to the Union. Would you reject this government for its omission, dissolve the Union, and bring miseries on yourselves and posterity? I hope the gentleman does not oppose it on this ground solely. Is there another reason? He said that it is not only the general wish of this state, but all the states, to have a bill of rights. If it be so, where is the difficulty of having this done by way of subsequent amendment? We shall find the other states willing to accord with their own favorite wish.

The gentleman last up says that the power of legislation includes every thing. A general power of legislation does.
But this is a special power of legislation. Therefore, it does NOT contain that plenitude of power which he imagines. They CANNOT legislate in any case but those "particularly enumerated". No gentleman, who is a friend to the government, ought to withhold his assent from it for this reason.

DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE:

"AMONG THESE" (Meaning there are many more) "INALIENABLE RIGHTS" ARE LIFE LIBERTY AND THE PURSUIT OF HAPPINESS. The Declaration of independence lists 40 Grievances. These 40 Grievances define 40 definitions what a Tyrannical government is. These 40 Grievances define that which is not freedom.
The opposite of these 40 Grievances present what Freedom is. The Bill of Rights Simply outline a few of your inalienable rights.  Read the Declaration of Independence, the sole Document that freedom was fought and won.
 

Amendment I

Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof;
or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the people peaceably to assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.

 

Amendment 1

This is very clear.
1. Congress cannot make laws concerning what is and what is not a religion.
2. Congress cannot prohibit the free exercise of any religion.
They cannot tax churches or religious properties because of their political views or activities.
3. Congress cannot stop people from speaking out or distributing printed text or images to one another in any way, shape or form (abridging).

abridging.
 a. To reduce the length of (a written text); condense.
b. To cut short; curtail.
4. Congress cannot stop people from the freedom of peaceably assembly or gathering.
5. Congress cannot stop people from petitioning the government for making right a wrong inflicted upon the people by the government or other for which the government can effect. Not, however, effecting others inalienable rights.

redresses.
1. To set right; remedy or rectify.
2. To make amends to.
3. To make amends for.
4. To adjust (a balance, for example).

redress
1. Satisfaction for wrong or injury; reparation.
2. Correction or reformation.

 

 

 

Amendment II

A well regulated Militia, being necessary to the security of a free State, the right of the people to keep and bear Arms, shall not be infringed.

 

Amendment 2

militia
1. An army composed of ordinary citizens rather than professional soldiers.
2. A military force that is not part of a regular army and is subject to call for service in an emergency.
3. The whole body of physically fit civilians eligible by law for military service.


*** See also the 12th Grievance from the Declaration of Independence a clear  statement against having a federal army stronger than the civil army. This  clarifies the absolute meaning. See reasons for separating #12.

 This is so plain and important I will repeat it here:

From the Declaration of Independence, one of the complaints of the colonists and reasons we overthrew the British rule upon the states:

"He (the king) has affected to render the military independent of and superior to the civil power."

 **********


Very plainly, the civil power must maintain a equal or greater strength to the military.

The fact that there was even a separate military and not simply a civil power  (....citizen militias of small local groups of citizens who knew, and had  full control of,  what they fought for;) was against their will.


 *********************************
 Here is a powerful statement of our Fore Fathers actually stating that the civil power should be equal to or greater than the military powers.
 
This can be no plainer.

 Lets look at what these words mean:


civil
1. Of, relating to, or befitting a citizen or citizens.


2. Of or relating to citizens and their interrelations with one another or with the state.


3. Of ordinary citizens or ordinary community life as distinguished from the military or the ecclesiastical.

 
4. Of, or in accordance with organized society; civilized.

 
5. Sufficiently observing or befitting accepted social usage's; not rude.

 
6. Being in accordance with or denoting legally recognized divisions of time.

 
7. Law. Relating to the rights of private individuals and legal proceedings  concerning these rights as distinguished from criminal, military, or international  regulations or proceedings.

militia (purposely repeated)


1. An army composed of ordinary citizens rather than professional soldiers. (see "civil" above) .


Note: Because the national guard is controlled by the federal government and paid as a reserve force it is not a civil power as defined.

 
                     **********


Very Plainly it states that in order to insure the security of a free state a well regulated armed civilian military not controlled by any government is necessary.
This Right is to protect freedom and inalienable rights; not to protect governments, not just any state, but a free and independent state and a free people....


             ***** This is the LAW. *****

regulated
1. To control or direct according to rule, principle, or law.

 
Note: we are a people who rule ourselves, we are not ruled.

 
Our principles and laws are outlined in the Declaration of Independence, Bill of Rights and the Constitution.


I have separated these as the Constitution would have never been ratified with out the Bill of Rights which are in fact Inalienable Rights.


2. To adjust to a particular specification or requirement

.
3. To adjust (a mechanism) for accurate and proper functioning.

 
4. To put or maintain in order. "The People" Note that the phrase "the people"  is used throughout the Declaration of independence and constitution to describe  the basic citizen, the individual or individuals gathered in the common cause  for freedom.


"We the people of the United States to form a more perfect union..."


It is the citizenry that is creating ...not any government. It has been said  and is indeed a fact that "a government that does not fear its people, is  feared by its people."


The reason we as a free people bear arms is first and foremost to secure freedom. Not to protect governments, countries or people in general.


The militia is the ordinary person; "the people" is each and every individual and all people.
The right to keep and bear any and all types of arms to secure a free state "shall not be infringed" or tampered with.


For if ever we had to take back our freedoms from our government, we would need the means to do so.


The British government did not like that idea, nor does any government at any time like that idea. Including our own. But that is freedom.


 *****************************


Note: More people die by socialist governments because socialism defers power to government; governments who obtain power over the people always become corrupt; corrupt governments always fall pray to power struggles which produce dictators; and dictators have been shown by history to waste lives in great masses.


 ******************************


Ironically, those people who socialists vote in and ultimately become dictators, are those who posses the attitudes that socialist despise the most:


Rich, ruthless, uncontrollably free and ultimately their leader!;


But with one coldly chilling difference: They now have control of the armies;


and the unarmed citizenry then having no arms or defense to repel any type of aggression against them....


"Sheep to the butcher."

 
A scare tactic to brain wash you? Hardly. It was Hitler who had the blessings  and vote of his people to turn this "total democracy" (meaning a country with no Bill of Inalienable Rights or absolute freedoms i.e. "socialism"); into dictatorship possessing a huge bureaucracy.


Note: Regardless of the title given to a government structure or its operation, if it has no bill of individual rights, and is moved by an unrestrained vote or blessings of the masses, it is socialism.


To take control of his own country, or to overthrow any country, Hitler first made "laws" to register those who had guns in that country, then simply changed the laws and confiscated the arms; of which he by then knew exactly who possessed them.

 
That is why registration of any weapon is unconstitutional, is in direct conflict with the Bill of Rights and of freedom.


A rule to go by is "never create laws that affect law abiding citizens based on the actions of a criminal".


Just simply and justly punish the criminal for the act he committed and let that be that.


The word and act of ""Prevention" in anything but, and relating to, medicine,  education and personal caution is in fact "Socialism".


 Freedom deals and makes corrections with that which has already occurred and relies on personal individual responsibility.
 

 

 

 

Amendment III

No Soldier shall, in time of peace be quartered in any house, without the consent of the Owner, nor in time of war, but in a manner to be prescribed by law.

  Amendment 3


A military & war powers act. This "a manner prescribed by law" does not  allow an opening to civil governments to property condemnation or use of private property in any way. This is unconstitutional.

How much more now, in time of peace, should the government be kept from condemning private property; when even in peace at that time, were they never able to be quartered within a house without ones consent!

 

 

 

Amendment IV

The right of the people to be secure in their persons, houses, papers, and effects, against unreasonable searches and seizures, shall not be violated, and no Warrants shall issue, but upon probable cause, supported by Oath or affirmation, and particularly describing the place to be searched, and the persons or things to be seized

 

 Amendment 4

There is no way you can be considered secure in your house if the government can take away your house or property if you don't pay your taxes.

All Taxes (or laws not directly and inevitably physically injurious outside that property) toward private property as UNCONSTITUTIONAL and demands all such taxes, zoning ordinances, fees and permits BE REMOVED IMMEDIATELY!

See diagram showing a FREE Country's way to how laws should be regarding ownership and building.

SEE PATRIOT TAX
 

 

 

 

Amendment V

No person shall be held to answer for a capital, or otherwise infamous crime, unless on a presentment or indictment of a Grand Jury, except in cases arising in the land or naval forces, or in the Militia, when in actual service in time of War or public danger; nor shall any person be subject for the same offense to be twice put in jeopardy of life or limb;

nor shall be compelled in any criminal case to be a witness against himself, nor be deprived of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor shall private property be taken for public use, without just compensation.

 

Amendment V

 

 

 

Amendment VI

In all criminal prosecutions, the accused shall enjoy the right to a speedy and public trial, by an impartial jury of the State and district wherein the crime shall have been committed, which district shall have been previously ascertained by law, and to be informed of the nature and cause of the accusation; to be confronted with the witnesses against him;


to have compulsory process for obtaining witnesses in his favor, and to have the Assistance of Counsel for his defense.

 

Amendment VI

 

 

 

Amendment VII


In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of the common law.

 

 

 

 

Amendment VII

In Suits at common law, where the value in controversy shall exceed twenty dollars, the right of trial by jury shall be preserved, and no fact tried by a jury, shall be otherwise reexamined in any Court of the United States, than according to the rules of thecommon law.

 

 

 

 

Amendment VIII

Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted.

 

 

 

 

Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

 

 

 

Amendment IX

The enumeration in the Constitution, of certain rights, shall not be construed to deny or disparage others retained by the people.

 

 

 

 

Amendment X

The powers not delegated to the United States by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people.

 

 

 

 

Amendment XI

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.

 

 

 

 

Amendment XI

The Judicial power of the United States shall not be construed to extend to any suit in law or equity, commenced or prosecuted against one of the United States by Citizens of another State, or by Citizens or Subjects of any Foreign State.
 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XII


The Electors shall meet in their respective states and vote by ballot for President and Vice-president, one of whom, at least, shall not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves;

they shall name in their ballots the person voted for as President, and in distinct ballots the person voted for as Vice-president, and they shall make distinct lists of all persons voted for as President, and of all persons voted for as Vice-president, and of the number of votes for each, which lists they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate;


--The President of the Senate shall, in the presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the certificates and the votes shall then be counted;


--the person having the greatest number of votes for President, shall be the President, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed;


and if no person have such majority, then from the persons having the most numbers not exceeding three on the list of those voted for as President, the House of Representatives shall choose immediately, by ballot, the President. But in choosing the President, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation  from each state having one vote;


a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. And if the House of Representatives shall not choose a President whenever the right of choice shall devolve upon them, before the fourth day of March next following, then the Vice-president shall act as President, as in the case of the death or other constitutional disability of the President.


--The person having the greatest number of votes as Vice-president, shall be the Vice-president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of Electors appointed, and if no person have a majority, then from the two highest numbers on the list, the Senate shall choose the vice-president a quorum for the purpose shall consist of two-thirds of the whole number of Senators, and a majority of the whole number shall be necessary to a choice. But no person constitutionally ineligible to the office of President shall be eligible to that of Vice-president of the United States.

 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XIII


Section 1.


Neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States, or any place subject to their jurisdiction.


Section 2.


Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

 

Amendment XIV


Section 1.

 All persons born or naturalized in the United States, and subject to the jurisdiction thereof, are citizens of the United States and of the State wherein they reside. No State shall make or enforce any law which shall abridge the privileges or immunities of citizens of the United States;
nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without due process of law; nor deny to any person within its jurisdiction the equal protection of the laws.


Section 2.

Representatives shall be apportioned among the several States according to their respective numbers, counting the whole number of persons in each State, excluding Indians not taxed. But when the right to vote at any election for the choice of electors for President and Vice President of the United States, Representatives in Congress, the Executive and Judicial officers of a State, or the members of the Legislature thereof, is denied to any of the male inhabitants of such State, being twenty-one years of age, and citizens of the United States, or in any way abridged, except for participation in rebellion, or other crime, the basis of representation therein shall be reduced in the proportion which the number of such male citizens shall bear to the whole number of male citizens twenty-one years of age in such State.


Section 3.

No person shall be a Senator or Representative in Congress, or elector of President and Vice President, or hold any office, civil or military, under the United States, or under any State, who, having previously taken an oath, as a member of Congress, or as an officer of the United States, or as a member of any State legislature, or as an executive or judicial officer of any State, to support the Constitution of the United States, shall have engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the same, or given aid or comfort to the enemies thereof. But Congress may by a vote of two-thirds of each House, remove such disability.


Section 4.

The validity of the public debt of the United States, authorized by law, including debts incurred for payment of pensions and bounties for services in suppressing insurrection or rebellion, shall not be questioned. But neither the United States nor any State shall assume or pay any debt or obligation incurred in aid of insurrection or rebellion against the United States, or any claim for the loss or emancipation of any slave; but all such debts, obligations and claims shall be held illegal and void.


Section 5.

The Congress shall have power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.
 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XV


Section 1.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.

Section 2.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation. Comments on Amendments 13, 14 and 15.
 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XVI


The Congress shall have power to lay and collect taxes on incomes, from whatever source derived, without apportionment among the several States, and without regard to any census of enumeration.
 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XVII


The Senate of the United States shall be composed of two Senators from each State, elected by the people thereof, for six years;


and each Senator shall have one vote. The electors in each State shall have the qualifications requisite for electors of the most numerous branch of the State legislatures. When vacancies happen in the representation of any State in the Senate, the executive authority of such State shall issue writs of election to fill such vacancies:


Provided, That the legislature of any State may empower the executive thereof to make temporary appointments until the people fill the vacancies by election as the legislature may direct. This amendment shall not be so construed as to affect the election or term of any Senator chosen before it becomes valid as part of the Constitution.
 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XVIII


Section 1.

 After one year from the ratification of this article the manufacture, sale, or transportation of intoxicating liquors within, the importation thereof into, or the exportation thereof from the United States and all territory subject to the jurisdiction thereof for beverage purposes is hereby prohibited.


Section 2.

The Congress and the several States shall have concurrent power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 
Section 3.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XIX


The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex. Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XX


Section 1.

The terms of the President and Vice President shall end at noon on the 20th day of January, and the terms of Senators and Representatives at noon on the 3d day of January, of the years in which such terms would have ended if this article had not been ratified; and the terms of their successors shall then begin.


Section 2.

The Congress shall assemble at least once in every year, and such meeting shall begin at noon on the 3d day of January, unless they shall by law appoint a different day.


Section 3.

If, at the time fixed for the beginning of the term of the President, the President elect shall have died, the Vice President elect shall become President. If a President shall not have been chosen before the time fixed for the beginning of his term, or if the President elect shall have failed to qualify, then the Vice President elect shall act as President until a President shall have qualified;

and the Congress may by law provide for the case wherein neither a President elect nor a Vice President elect shall have qualified, declaring who shall then act as President, or the manner in which one who is to act shall be selected, and such person shall act accordingly until a President or Vice President shall have qualified.


Section 4.

The Congress may by law provide for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the House of Representatives may choose a President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them, and for the case of the death of any of the persons from whom the Senate may choose a Vice President whenever the right of choice shall have devolved upon them.


Section 5.

Sections 1 and 2 shall take effect on the 15th day of October following the ratification of this article.


Section 6.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XXI


Section 1.

The eighteenth article of amendment to the Constitution of the United States is hereby repealed.


Section 2.

The transportation or importation into any State, Territory, or possession of the United States for delivery or use therein of intoxicating liquors, in violation of the laws thereof, is hereby prohibited.


Section 3.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by conventions in the several States, as provided in the Constitution, within seven years from the date of the submission hereof to the States by the Congress.
 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XXII


Section 1.

No person shall be elected to the office of the President more than twice, and no person who has held the office of President, or acted as President, for more than two years of a term to which some other person was elected President shall be elected to the office of the President more than once. But this Article shall not apply to any person holding the office of President when this Article was proposed by the Congress, and shall not prevent any person who may be holding the office of President, or acting as President, during the term within which this Article becomes operative from holding the office of President or acting as President during the remainder of such term.


Section 2.

This article shall be inoperative unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the Constitution by the legislatures of three-fourths of the several States within seven years from the date of its submission to the States by the Congress.
 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XXIII


 Section 1.

The District constituting the seat of Government of the United States shall appoint in such manner as the Congress may direct: A number of electors of President and Vice President equal to the whole number of Senators and Representatives in Congress to which the District would be entitled if it were a State, but in no event more than the least populous State;


they shall be in addition to those appointed by the States, but they shall be considered, for the purposes of the election of President and Vice President, to be electors appointed by a State;


and they shall meet in the District and perform such duties as provided by the twelfth article of amendment.


Section 2.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XXIV


Section 1.

The right of citizens of the United States to vote in any primary or other election for President or Vice President, for electors for President or Vice President, or for Senator or Representative in Congress, shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State by reason of failure to pay any poll tax or other tax.


Section 2.

The Congress shall have power to enforce this article by appropriate legislation.

 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XXV


Section 1.

 In case of the removal of the President from office or of his death or resignation, the Vice President shall become President.


Section 2.

Whenever there is a vacancy in the office of the Vice President, the President shall nominate a Vice President who shall take office upon confirmation by a majority vote of both Houses of Congress.


Section 3.

Whenever the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that he is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, and until he transmits to them a written declaration to the contrary, such powers and duties shall be discharged by the Vice President as Acting President.


Section 4.

Whenever the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive departments or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office, the Vice President shall immediately assume the powers and duties of the office as Acting President. Thereafter, when the President transmits to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives his written declaration that no inability exists, he shall resume the powers and duties of his office unless the Vice President and a majority of either the principal officers of the executive department or of such other body as Congress may by law provide, transmit within four days to the President pro tempore of the Senate and the Speaker of the House of Representatives their written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office. Thereupon Congress shall decide the issue, assembling within forty-eight hours for that purpose if not in session. If the Congress, within twenty-one days after receipt of the latter written declaration, or, if Congress is not in session, within twenty-one days after Congress is required to assemble, determines by two-thirds vote of both Houses that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties his office, the Vice President shall continue to discharge the same as Acting President;


otherwise, the President shall resume the powers and duties of his office.

 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XXVI


Section 1.

The right of citizens of the United States, who are 18 years of age or older, to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or any State on account of age.

 

 

 

 

 

Amendment XXVII


No law, varying the compensation for the service of the senators and representatives  shall take effect, until an election of representatives shall have intervened.

 

 

 

 

 

Equal Rights Amendment


Section 1.

Equality of rights under the law shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.


Section 2.

The Congress shall have the power to enforce, by appropriate legislation, the provisions of this article.


Section 3.

This amendment shall take effect two years after the date of ratification.

 

 

 

 

 

District of Columbia Amendment


Section 1
.

For purposes of representation in Congress, election of the President and Vice President, and Article V of this Constitution the District constituting the seat of government of the United States shall be treated as though it were a state.


Section 2.

The exercise of the rights and powers conferred under this article shall be by the people of the District constituting the seat of government and as shall be provided by Congress.

Section 3.

The Twenty-third Amendment to the Constitution is hereby repealed.


Section 4.

This article shall be inoperative, unless it shall have been ratified as an amendment to the constitution by the legislators of three-fourths of the several states within seven years from the date of its submission.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

US Military Armed Forces Base Directory:

Army Major Commands, Army Major Commands     AMC ­ U.S. Army Material Command located in Fort Belvior, VA.  The official web site is www.amc.army.mil  AMC is the Army's premier provider of materiel readiness to the total force across the spectrum of joint military operations.  If a soldier shoots it, drives it, flies it, wears it or eats it, AMC provides it.

MTMC ­ U.S. Army Military Traffic Management Command located on Alexandria, VA.  The official website is www.mtmc.army.mil  MTMC is the Department of Defense's heavy-equipment mover for contingency, training and humanitarian operations.

MEDCOM ­ U.S. Army Medical Command located at Fort Sam Houston, Texas.  The official website is www.armymedicine.army.mil  MEDCOM projects and sustains a healthy and medically protected force; trains, equips, and deploys the medical force; and manages and promotes the health of soldiers and military families.

USARPAC ­ U.S. Army Pacific located at Fort Shafter, Hawaii.  The official website is www.usarpac.army.mil  USARPAC provides trained and ready forces in support of military and peacetime operations in the Asia-Pacific area in order to contribute to regional stability, crisis response and decisive victory.

FORSCOM ­ U.S. Army Forces Command located at Fort McPherson, Georgia.  The official website is www.forscom.army.mil  The Army component of U.S. Joint Forces Command, FORSCOM trains, mobilizes, deploys and sustains active and reserve component forces capable of operating in joint and combined environments to meet worldwide operational commitments.

USASOC ­ U.S. Army Special Operations Command located at Fort Bragg, North Carolina.  The official website is www.soc.mil  USASOC organizes, trains, educates, mans, equips, funds, administers, mobilizes, deploys and sustains Army special operations forces to successfully conduct worldwide special operations across the range of military operations, in support of regional combatant commanders, American ambassadors and other agencies, as directed.

USARSO ­ U.S. Army, South located at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico.  The official website is www.usarso.army.mil  USARSO commands and controls Army forces in the U.S. Southern Command area of responsibility and provides theater support for Army forces and headquarters as directed by the USSSOUTHCOM commander in chief.  USARSO will become a major subordinate command of FORSCOM and move to Fort Sam Houston, Texas, during fiscal year 2003.

TRADOC ­ U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command located at Fort Monroe, Virginia.  The official website is www.tradoc.army.mil  TRADOC shapes the 21st-century Army by training and educating its soldiers and leaders while sustaining the shared vision of how the Army operates as a member of joint service, combined arms and multinational teams.

CID ­ U.S. Army Criminal Investigation Command located at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.  The official website is www.cid.army.mil  CID is the Army's criminal investigative organization and conducts investigations in which the Army is or may be a party of interest.  CID provides senior leader protective-services and forensic laboratory support to investigations; maintains the Army's criminal records; provides logistical security from factory to foxhole; conducts computer network intrusion investigations; and develops countermeasures to criminal and subversive activity.

INSCOM ­ U.S. Army Intelligence and Security Command located at Fort Belvoir, Virginia.  The official website is www.inscom.army.mil  INSCOM conducts dominant intelligence, security and information operations for commanders and national decision-makers, and provides warfighters with the seamless intelligence needed to understand and dominate the battlefield.

SMDC ­ U.S. Space and Missile Defense Command located in Arlington, Virginia.  The official website is www.smdc.army.mil  SDMC develops and provides space and missile-defense capabilities for the Army and the nation.

EUSA ­ Eight U.S. Army located in Yongsan, Korea.  The official website is http://8tharmy.korea.army.mil  EUSA supports deterrence of North Korean aggression against the Republic of Korea and, should deterrence fail, supports noncombatant-evacuation operations and transitions to hostilities as it generates combat power to support the United Nations Command and Combined Forces Command response.

USAREUR ­ U.S. Army, Europe located at Heidelberg, Germany.  The official website is www.hqusareur.army.mil  As America's Army in Europe, USAREUR is structured and trained as a versatile and agile power-projection force, ready for joint and multinational operations, and committed to providing for the readiness and well being of its soldiers, civilians and families.

USASCE ­ U.S. Army Corps of Engineers located in Washington, D.C.  The official website is www.usace.army.mil  USACE provides quality, responsive engineering services to the Army, Department of Defense and the nation.

MDW ­ U.S. Army Military District of Washington located at Fort McNair, Washington, D.C.  The official website is www.mdw.army.mil  MDW responds to crisis, disaster or security requirements in the National Capital Region; provides base operations support for defense organizations throughout the NCR, including operation of Arlington National Cemetery; and conducts official ceremonies on behalf of the nation's civilian and military leaders.  

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Back to U.S. Army Index Page

 
Pacific Command (PACOM)
Current Order of Battle:

Pacific Command
  - U.S. Army Pacific  8th U.S. Army
  - 25th Infantry Division (Light)   - 6th Cavalry Brigade
  - U.S. Army Japan   - 17th Aviation Brigade
  - U.S. Army Alaska   - 164th ATS Group
  - 18th Medical Command
  - 19th Theater Support Command
  - 2nd Infantry Division (Light)

Unit

Type


Base
Barracks
Pacific Command (PACOM)
HQ   Honolulu,HI Camp Smith
      
U.S. Army Pacific (USARPAC)
HQ Bat   Honolulu,HI Fort Shafter
45.SuppGr   Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Schofield Bks
68.MedCo (AA)/524.SB UH-60A Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
B.Co/214.Av(M)/524.SB CH-47D Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
      
25th Infantry Division (Light) "Tropic Lightning"
HQ Co   Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Schofield Bks
DivSuppCom   Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Schofield Bks
C.Co/25.Av (AVIM) no helicopter assigned Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
AvBrig   Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Schofield Bks
1.Bat/25.Av (ATK) OH-58D(R) Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
2.Bat/25.Av (AHB)   Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
2.Bat/25.Av/A.Co (AHC) UH-60L Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
2.Bat/25.Av/B.Co (AHC) UH-60L Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
2.Bat/25.Av/C.Co (CMD) UH-60A,EH-60C,OH-58D Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
2.Bat/25.Av/D.Co (AVUM)   Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
3.Sq/4.Cav OH-58D(R) Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Schofield Bks
G.Co/58.Av (ATS)   Wahiawa/Oahu,HI Wheeler AAF
      
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U.S. Army Japan (USARJ)
HQ Co   Sagamihara,Japan Camp Zama
9.TSC   Sagamihara,Japan Camp Zama
78.AvBat (CMD)   Sagamihara,Japan Camp Zama/Kastner AAF
78.AvBat/A.Co C-12F, UH-60A Sagamihara,Japan Camp Zama/Kastner AAF
78.AvBat/D.Co   Sagamihara,Japan Camp Zama/Kastner AAF
      

U.S. Army Alaska (USARAK)
HQ   Anchorage,AK Fort Richardson
ArcticSuppBrig   Anchorage,AK Fort Richardson
4.Bat/123.Av (TA)   Fairbanks,AK Fort Wainwright/Ladd AAF
4.Bat/123.Av/B.Co (MHC) CH-47D Fairbanks,AK Fort Wainwright/Ladd AAF
4.Bat/123.Av/D.Co (AHC) UH-60A Fairbanks,AK Fort Wainwright/Ladd AAF
C.Co/123.Av (AVIM) UH-60A, CH-47D Fairbanks,AK Fort Wainwright/Ladd AAF
68.MedDet (AA) UH-60A Fairbanks,AK Fort Wainwright/Ladd AAF
129.MedDet (AA) UH-1V Anchorage,AK Fort Richardson/Bryant AAF
USAG Fort Greely/AvDet UH-1H Delta Junction,AK Fort Greely/Allen AAF
      
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8th U.S. Army (EUSA)
HQ   Yongsan,RoK Yongsan Main Post 1
6.CavBrig (Air)   Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
1.Sq/6.Cav (ATK) AH-64A Hoengsong,RoK Camp Eagle
3.Sq/6.Cav (ATK) AH-64D Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
       
17.AvBrig (TA)   Yongsan,RoK Yongsan Main Post 1
1.Bat/52.Av (CMD)   Songnam,RoK Seoul AB
1.Bat/52.Av/A.Co (CS) UH-60A Songnam,RoK Seoul AB
1.Bat/52.Av/B.Co (CS) UH-60A Songnam,RoK Seoul AB
1.Bat/52.Av/C.Co (CS) UH-60A Songnam,RoK Seoul AB
1.Bat/52.Av/D.Co (AVUM)   Songnam,RoK Seoul AB
2.Bat/52.Av (MHB)   Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
2.Bat/52.Av/A.Co (M) CH-47D Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
2.Bat/52.Av/B.Co (M) CH-47D Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
6.Bat/52.Av/A.Co (TA) C-12F Songnam,RoK Seoul AB
      
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164.ATSGr (ATS)   Yongsan,RoK Yongsan Main Post 2
B.Co/58.Av (ATS)   Uijongbu,RoK Camp Red Cloud
B.Co/58.Av/1.Pl (ATS)   Chunchon,RoK Camp Page
B.Co/58.Av/Tower (ATS)   Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
B.Co/58.Av/Tower (ATS)   Taegu,RoK Camp Walker
B.Co/58.Av/Radar (ATS)   Suwon,RoK Madison RadioSite
D.Co/58.Av (ATS)   Yongsan,RoK Yongsan Main Post 2
D.Co/58.Av/2.Pl (ATS)   Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
D.Co/58.Av/Tower (ATS)   Uijongbu,RoK Camp Stanley/Cochran AAF
D.Co/58.Av/Tower (ATS)   Tongduchon-Ni,RoK Camp Casey
D.Co/58.Av/Tower (ATS)   Uijongbu,RoK Camp LaGuardia
18.MedCom   Yongsan,RoK Yongsan South Post 1
52.MedBat (Evac)   Yongsan,RoK Yongsan South Post 1
377.MedCo (AA) UH-60A Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
377.MedCo/Det.1 (AA) UH-60A Taegu,RoK Camp Walker
542.MedCo (AA) UH-60A Chunchon,RoK Camp Page
542.MedCo/Det.1 (AA) UH-60A  Tongduchon-Ni,RoK Camp Casey
19.TSC   Taegu,RoK Camp Henry
C.Co/52.Av (AVIM) UH-60A  Pyongtaek,RoK Camp Humphreys/Desiderio AAF
G.Co/52.Av (AVIM) UH-60A Hoengsong,RoK Camp Eagle
      
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2nd Infantry Division (Light) "Warriors"
HQ Co   Uijongbu,RoK Camp Red Cloud
DivSuppCom   Tongduchon-Ni,RoK Camp Casey
C.Co/2.Av (AVIM) no helicopter assigned Uijongbu,RoK Camp Stanley/Cochran AAF
2.AvBrig   Uijongbu,RoK Camp Stanley/Cochran AAF
1.Bat/2.Av (ATK) AH-64D Chunchon,RoK Camp Page
2.Bat/2.Av (AHB)   Uijongbu,RoK Camp Stanley/Cochran AAF
2.Bat/2.Av/A.Co (AHC) UH-60L Uijongbu,RoK Camp Stanley/Cochran AAF
2.Bat/2.Av/B.Co (AHC) UH-60L Uijongbu,RoK Camp Stanley/Cochran AAF
2.Bat/2.Av/C.Co (CMD) UH-60A,EH-60C,OH-58D Uijongbu,RoK Camp Stanley/Cochran AAF
2.Bat/2.Av/D.Co (AVUM)   Uijongbu,RoK Camp Stanley/Cochran AAF
4.Sq/7.Cav   Munsan,RoK Camp Garry Owen
4.Sq/7.Cav/D.Trp (ACT) OH-58D Tonggo-Ri,RoK Camp Stanton
4.Sq/7.Cav/E.Trp (ACT) OH-58D Tonggo-Ri,RoK Camp Stanton
4.Sq/7.Cav/F.Trp (AVUM)   Tonggo-Ri,RoK Camp Stanton
      
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AA = Air Ambulance
AAF = Army Airfield

ACT = Air Cavalry Troop
AE = Aerial Exploitation
AHC = Assault helicopter company
ATK = Attack
ATS = Air traffic service
AvSuppBat =  Aviation support battalion
AVUM =  Aviation unit maintenance
AVIM =  Aviation intermediate maintenance
Bks =  Barracks
CAC = Command and control
CMD = Command
Evac = Evacuation
GSAB = General support aviation battalion
M = Medium helicopter
MI = Military intelligence
RC = Reserve component
SAC = Support aviation company 


United States Army Pacific Command (USARPAC).
The U. S. Army, Pacific serves as the Army Component Command to the Commander in Chief U. S. Pacific Command (USCINCPAC), less the geographic area of Korea. USARPAC commands active U. S. Army and U. S. Army Reserve forces in Alaska, Hawaii, Japan, and in possessions and trust territories administered by the United States in US Pacific command.

In October 2000, USARPAC became a Multi-Component Unit (MCU) and Army Service Component Command (ASCC) as part of the US Army transformation to meet the emerging security needs of the United States in which USARPAC continues to be a key strategic player. The whole idea of the multi-component unit is to give active army units additional resources to accomplish the mission. The multi-component integration is important in the overall picture of the Army's success going into the 21st century. With the Reserve and National Guard assuming a more active role in total Army operations and the "One Team, One Fight, One Future" concept, multi-component integration provides for a better understanding of each component's role in achieving victory.

USARPAC trains Army Forces for support of military operations and peacetime engagements in order to contribute to decisive victory and promote regional stability. USARPAC solicits, awards, and administers contracts in support of mission-related requirements, including administrative supplies and services, waste disposal, food services, minor construction, facilities, maintenance and repair, grounds maintenance, ADP equipment and services, and laundry services.

Following World War II, numerous Army headquarters in the central Pacific were consolidated with the goal of forming a single Army command based in Hawaii. In 1957, the U.S. Army, Pacific (USARPAC) was established at Fort Shafter, following inactivation of the Far East Command. As Army component of the unified command led by the U.S. Commander in Chief Pacific, USARPAC was assigned a threefold mission: Provide necessary ground Army combat forces; Support those forces administratively and logistically; and Provide reserves and contingency plans to meet any ground threat to United States interests in the Pacific.

On March 23, 1979, The Department of the Army announced the establishment of the U.S. Army Western Command (WESTCOM). Then, a decade later, U.S. Army forces in the Pacific were further consolidated. Army units in Alaska and in Japan were placed under the command of the Fort Shafter headquarters, which was once again designated U.S. Army, Pacific. The new command was formally reestablished on August 30, 1990.

In the years since the end of the Vietnam War, Army forces in the Pacific have participated in major peacekeeping operations in the Sinai Desert, and have provided humanitarian and disaster relief missions in Bangladesh, the Philippines, Guam, and the island of Kauai.

Although fully trained for warfare, USARPAC soldiers are also skilled in conducting operations other than war. Whether it is assuring order among refugees at Guantanamo, providing flood relief in the deltas of South Asia, or maintaining a cease fire in the Middle East, USARPAC personnel operate far and wide in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions. In late 1994, fully one half of the 25th Infantry Division deployed to Haiti as the United States and other governments worked to restore democracy to that unfortunate nation. Two years later, USARPAC peacekeepers went to Bosnia to help restore hope to that warshattered land. 

Joint Rear Area Coordination (JRAC)

The United States Army Pacific (USARPAC), in partnership with local, state and federal authorities, have developed a plan of preparedness for the state of Hawaii. The Commander-in-Chief, Pacific Command, has identified the USARPAC as the executive agent for joint rear area coordination (JRAC). This task is normally accomplished in a wartime theater of operation, but in this case, it is being accomplished for the state of Hawaii. Teaming with local and state civil organizations and federal agencies, JRAC-Hawaii (HI) has accomplished a significant amount in the short time since Sept. 11.

JRAC-HI is protecting its military installations by reducing and restricting entry points using roving patrols. Guard duties have completely changed. Guards must now understand the changing dynamics of a more dangerous world, and must learn to expect the unexpected. Military installations worldwide are now on the front lines and are the subject of surveillance and probes more than ever before. Guards must be more alert to activities both on and off the installations, and they must constantly vary security procedure patterns to eliminate predictability. They must also be linked to local law enforcement and must be the beneficiaries and target audience of a regular joint and interagency intelligence summary. Because of these changing conditions, JRAC-HI reinstituted more formalized guard mounts and instructions tailored to the current operational environment.


JRAC-HI has identified mission essential or vulnerable areas (MEVAs) both on and off the installations. MEVAs are facilities and capabilities essential to accomplishing the military mission. These MEVAs have been thoroughly assessed and security needs addressed. Tailored after general defense plan (GDP) battle books from the Cold War in Europe, MEVA folders detail every aspect relevant to the defense of these critical sites. Local civil authorities have done the same with over 150 of their own MEVAs and both the civil and military authorities regularly conduct site surveys.

JRAC-HI has fine-tuned  procedures for providing military support to civil authorities (MSCA) in the event of a natural or man-made disaster. As the executive agent for MSCA in Hawaii, American Samoa, and neighboring islands, JRAC-HI provides a defense-coordinating officer to coordinate military support of civilian consequence management operations. Even before Sept. 11, JRAC-HI maintained a close relationship with local and state government leaders, who can leverage many standing MSCA concepts and plans as the JRAC operation comes together. JRAC-HI's participation in steering committees and plenary groups, such as the Hawaii Emergency Preparedness Executive Committee, the Hawaii Energy Council and the Joint Armed Services/State of Hawaii Civil Defense Coordinating Committee, is instrumental in sharing information and developing joint and civil-military solutions to emerging challenges.

JRAC-HI has established quick reaction forces (QRFs) drawn from both U.S. Marine Corps and Army units. These QRFs are capable of moving on short notice by air or road to any place in the state to provide additional security or to assist in any other way. While awaiting adjudication at the national level on the procedures for employing those forces in domestic situations, JRAC-HI is regularly conducting joint training with civil authorities.

JRAC-HI has worked to identify seams in its collective efforts to secure Hawaii's soil and people. This coordination is taking place with all the military services in Hawaii, state and local civil defense (CD), U.S. Coast Guard (USCG), National Guard (NG), Honolulu Police Department (HPD), fire departments, and a host of other local and federal government agencies such as the state health and transportation departments. Also included in this effort are the FBI, Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), U.S. Customs Service (USCS) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), as well as selected private firms and enterprises involved in supporting Hawaii's critical infrastructure. The Joint Interagency Planning Group, established by USARPAC within days of the attacks, has been the principal driver behind this effort.


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